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FDA Asked to Approve Creation of Genetically Modified Children Tags: FDA genetically modified children Brave New World

image (1)In a public meeting scheduled for February 25-26, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) will consider approval of experiments to produce children by the in vitro fertilization of an egg containing DNA derived from both the intended mother and another woman. Although such large-scale genetic engineering has never before been attempted in humans, the procedure — to create “three-parent babies” — is paradoxically being touted by its developers as a relatively trivial tweaking of the reproductive process to enable women with compromised eggs to become genetic mothers of unaffected children. These claims of high impact health benefits from a low-risk procedure cannot be squared with scientific reality.

 

The FDA’s meeting announcement promises to “discuss oocyte modification in assisted reproduction for the prevention of transmission of mitochondrial disease or treatment of infertility.” But while an oocyte (the immature form of an egg) is an absolute requirement for generating an embryo, and ultimately a new person, the immature eggs to be modified are not those of the women seeking assistance in child-bearing. A second woman would contribute the “healthy” egg; the woman arranging for the procedure would contribute only the genes extracted from one of her own eggs.

The only reason a prospective female parent would consider the procedure, known as “maternal spindle transfer” (MST), is if her own oocytes contained impaired mitochondria, or energy-extracting organelles. Only a handful of women who are affected by certain forms of mitochondrial disease would be candidates for MST, and they could use existing and far safer IVF techniques to have a healthy and genetically related child. But the researchers working on MST at Oregon Health Sciences University and Columbia University are eager to move ahead with it.

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One can make arguments in either direction about which of the female parents in an episode of MST is the “mother,” but biologically speaking, the woman who provides the egg has a unique role in the reproductive process. To see why this is the case it is helpful to note that many animals — some fish and frogs under natural conditions, and experimentally, mammals — can produce embryos from the egg alone, without fertilization. Such “parthenogenesis” is not possible starting from an oocyte’s chromosomes or even an intact sperm cell.

The egg is essential because in addition to its mitochondria it contains hundreds of different protein and RNA molecules it incorporates during its formation in the egg producer’s ovary. This information directs the use, or “expression,” of the transferred genes at the early stages of the embryo’s development. From the standpoint of the woman who contributes this one non-redundant ingredient, the extent of genetic engineering of her egg in MST is massive.

The FDA refers to MST as “oocyte modification,” an understandable framing by a regulatory agency primarily concerned with the technique’s safety. Specifically, if it could be established that the procedure generates embryos from a healthy oocyte modified with sound components, the FDA could justify certifying it. But as we have seen, the woman whose oocyte would be modified (extensively, as we have seen), is not the woman who intends to be the parent of the resulting infant.

For the researchers working to develop MST, the objectives are different and so is the framing. These advocates have an interest in maximizing the potential benefits while minimizing the extent of the intervention. Their characterization of the procedure as “mitochondrial transfer” or “mitochondria donation” has been adopted by journalists and even by critics of the procedure.

It is clear, however, that much more than mitochondria is being transferred or donated in MST. This is obscured in most reports on the subject, even in scientific journals. A recent report in the journal Nature states, “The technique [combines] genetic material from a mitochondria donor, the mother who provides the nucleus and a father.” To use the emotive term “mother” only for the donor of the maternal set of chromosomes downplays the unique biological role of the egg and of the woman who contributes it. It has the further effect of endorsing the false assertion of MST’s advocates that the procedure comes down to the transfer of a few (i.e., the mitochondrial) genes. What is actually being transferred are 20,000 or so genes provided by the chromosome donor.

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Neither the FDA, with its charge of protecting safety, nor prospective clients, with their desire for an effective outcome, should be heartened by the outcomes of experimental evaluation of MST. Half of the human eggs tested underwent abnormal fertilization, with excess DNA being carried over to the embryos, resulting in chromosomal abnormalities. This phenomenon was rarely seen with animal eggs experimented on in the same fashion. As one of the principal MST scientists acknowledged to a Nature reporter, “It looks like human oocytes are more sensitive.”

Other scientists have suggested that co-evolution of mitochondrial and maternal nuclear genomes has selected against deleterious genetic incompatibilities. Animal experiments have indicated that these could be reestablished, to the detriment of the engineered child and the wider human population, in the proposed “mix-and-match” experiments.

Nonetheless, the FDA, following in the tracks of the British Human Fertilization and Embryology Authority which has already approved a similar technique, is taking steps that may eventually lead to the procedure’s becoming an option in assisted reproduction for a small group of affected individuals. But because it is a much more extensive manipulation than advertised, it will open the door to routine applications of germline (i.e., inheritable) gene modification. In particular, once the transfer of an entire haploid (i.e., one-parent’s) set of chromosomes into a woman’s egg is considered acceptable, transfer of a smaller number of chromosomes or genes will be a much easier sell.

Narrow and selective application of scientific information can be misleading about the contributions of, and impacts on, each of the adult participants of MST. Few would disagree that the biologically most relevant perspective for judging the procedure is that of the new individual who would be brought into being by it. This person would develop from a fertilized egg in which all but a few genes (those of the mitochondria), not just those of the male parent, come from a source other than the egg itself. This clearly makes any such person a product of wholesale genetic engineering. We do not know nearly enough about the process of embryonic development for the FDA to even contemplate approving this procedure.

Source:

www.huffingtonpost.com

 

SOURCE

2 CMEs Coming, Disaster Report | S0 News December 19, 2014 Tags: S0 News

Published on 19 Dec 2014

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Raul Castro’s Dance with the Amerikan Devil
Category: BEYOND ILLUSION
Tags: Big Brother Cuba globalist agenda Latin America new world order

OrientalReview

Did Raul Just Reverse The Entire Cuban Revolution?

 

Did Raul Just Reverse The Entire Cuban Revolution?

Raul Castro may have potentially made a fatal mistake that risks destroying everything the Cuban Revolution built over the past half century. By entering into a deal with the US, he’s letting the wily Color Revolution fox into the hen house, and he’s also betraying his multipolar Russian ally at the same time.

Havana and Washington entered into a surprise deal yesterday to historically restore their relations after engaging in a high-profile prisoner swap. Nobody was expecting such a major development to occur, making many wonder how such an impactful decision could be kept under wraps for so long. The reason being was likely that the US understood what a major hemispheric power play this was and wanted to do everything to safeguard its secret strategy. On the contrary, Cuba, whether its leadership realizes it or not, has everything to lose, and it’s clear from the details that Washington was ‘negotiating’ from a position of strength. While Raul may have thought he could outmaneuver the imminent Color Revolution attempt that will occur after Fidel’s death, he may have actually committed a Yanukovich-esque tactical mistake by trying to enter into agreement with the same forces obsessed with his ouster.

Modern Lessons
Before diving in to the nitty-gritty of Raul’s decision, it is necessary to quickly take an overview of two monumental lessons of the past few years that should not have been lost on any global leader:

The Gaddafi Gamble:
The Libyan leader thought that he could safeguard his state by getting rid of his weapons of mass destruction without a Great Power negotiating on his side (as Russia did for Syria), but in reality, he unwittingly sold his country out.

The Yanukovich “Yes!”:
By saying “Yes!” to working with the Color Revolutionary forces inside the country, Yanukovich guaranteed that his days would be numbered from then on out.

Lessons Lost
Raul somehow managed to not learn any of these lessons and risks the colossal mistake of abrogating both of them. Cuba is suspected of having some type of limited biological weapons program, although the true extent of it is unknown. Nonetheless, if Cuba does have some element of this (which the US has accused it of), then it’s all but assured that it was a bargaining chip in the

 

Through these companies US sponsors Color Revolutions.

deal with the US. Although it is only speculative at the time, it could be that the US changed its regime change precondition for the restoration of ties to an ultimatum over getting rid of that Cuba’s bioweapons program. If this was the case, the Raul’s fate will be as good as Gaddafi’s.

But what is certain in this situation is that Raul is following in Yanukovich’s footsteps by trying to save his own skin through convoluted Machiavellian games. Fidel is a likely a lot closer to death than the Cuban government is letting on, and Raul knows that the moment his brother passes away, the Color Revolution will officially be initiated. He thought he could preempt large-scale disturbances among the portion of the population with legitimate grievances that could be manipulated by the US through a proactive deal with Washington. But just like Yanukovich committed a flagrant folly through his ‘reach out’ attempts to the ‘opposition’, so too is Raul doing the exact same thing by working with the US. The difference is, Yanukovich dealt with the proxies, but Raul is politicking with the puppet masters themselves, who are much more experienced at the art of manipulation than the throw-away ‘opposition’ is.

Who’s Really Calling The Shots
On the surface, it appears as though the deal was relatively fair and even, with both sides getting what they wanted plus the future prospect of limitless mutual benefit through the restoration of relations. Sure, Cuba regained its three heroes and this was a symbolic success for the government, but it’s the US that really called the shots in this ‘deal’. It dictated which of the 53 ‘political prisoners’ would be released (another condition for the restoration of ties), and not only that, but they’re free to walk about the island and go right back to their subversive activities.

Pro-Western democracy leader Aung San Suu Kyi from Myanmar attempted to radically destabilize the Myanmar government before her famous imprisonment. Now, Cuba has 53 such people and they're free to do as they please without consequence to themselves.

In essence, Raul just created 53 untouchable Aung San Suu Kyi’s that are all but guaranteed to form the core of the public Color Revolutionary elite. After all, so much global publicity has been expended on this deal, that there is close to no possibility that Raul’s government would take the risk of rough handling them in the future, regardless of their provocations, as the global information warfare potential against the government would be too great at that point. He walked right into a trap, and the imminent Color Revolution will now either sweep him from power, or he’ll be forced into conceding everything away and dismantling the country by his own hand as dictated from abroad via the internal (now permanent) proxies.

Reacting Against Russia
The US likely sweetened the deal with some behind-the-scenes economic incentives in order to facilitate its conclusion as soon as possible due to the Russia factor. Putin made a surprise visit to the island in July en route to the BRICS Summit in Brazil, and during his stay there, he announced that Russia was forgiving $32 billion of Cuba’s debt, which was 90% of the total. In exchange, it was rumored that Moscow would be reopening the Soviet-era signals intelligence base in Lourdes, which considering the tense climate of the New Cold War, would have been a massive strategic detriment for the US. With this in mind, the US immediately set off to seduce Cuba.

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