Back in 2007, in response to a U.S. military project, Danley Sound Labs created the Matterhorn, a subwoofer speaker bigger than a pickup truck. At its mouth, the Matterhorn prototype generated 160 decibels, powerful enough to destroy the human ear instantly. Three football fields away, the speaker projected 105 decibels, equivalent to running a lawn mower next to your ear. When the Matterhorn was first demonstrated, officials would not allow Danley to turn the speaker up very far for fear of structurally damaging the surrounding building.
Fortunately, commercial versions of the Matterhorn are scaled down to safer levels. But there’s a lesson in this story: Sound is a physical force that must be respected and handled responsibly.
The Science of Sound
Sound is the energy produced when things vibrate, forcing a surrounding medium (such as air) to vibrate as well. The vibrating medium travels in cycles, first compressing as the vibrating object moves outward, and then expanding to fill the space left by the object as it retreats inward.
When diagrammed mathematically, these cycles take the shape of a whip, forming a sine wave with crests and troughs. Points on the X axis midway between each crest and trough, known as nodes, represent where the medium hosting the wave would normally be if the vibration were not disturbing it. The vertical distance between a node and a crest or trough is known as the amplitude and represents degree of disturbance. The horizontal distance between one crest or trough and another is called the wavelength. The number of crests or troughs that pass a given point per second is the frequency. Frequency is calculated by dividing the velocity of the wave by its wavelength and is measured in hertz. The power carried by a sound wave per unit area is called its intensity. Intensity is measured in decibels.
When these waves are perceived by the human ear, the loudness of a sound depends largely on its amplitude. The pitch of a sound depends on its frequency. The quality of a sound depends on how harmonic the synchronization is between the phases of the primary wave produced by the vibrating object and secondary waves produced by different parts of the vibrating object, known as overtones. A piano sounds different than a violin because they have different overtones.
High Decibels Can Hurt You
Because sound waves carry power, exposure to excessive decibels can hurt or damage your ears. Normal conversations occur around 60 dB, while shouting rises to 90 to 95 dB, and a boom box increases toward 96 to 100 dB.
Sounds become harmful above 85 dB. According to the CDC, you can be exposed to 85 dB for up to 8 hours before it becomes dangerous, but at 88 dB this drops to 4 hours, and by the time you reach 112 dB, 1 minute of exposure puts you at risk. You don’t even have to hear such sounds for damage to occur; recent research at Ludwig Maximilian University shows that even inaudible low-frequency sounds can affect you.
Sound can also affect you psychologically. A 2011 World Health Organization study found a correlation between prolonged exposure to noise pollution, high blood pressure and fatal heart attacks. The study also found that exposure to chronic noise, such as living near airports, can impact children’s development and cause health and educational problems.
Using Sound Safely
To reduce noise pollution, turn off your electronic devices when you’re not using them to reduce background noise. Soundproof your surroundings by using rugs or carpets to cover hard floors, putting shelves or furniture against noisy walls, using curtains, and repairing or replacing faulty windows. Cancel out negative sounds by creating peaceful sounds around you. For example, you can install a surround sound or sound bar system and use it to play soothing music. Periodically take quiet time to meditate quietly and cultivate a sense of silence.
Books. Remember them? The big lumps of wood pulp that used to clog up your shelves? Well, they’re back, and hotter than vinyl records.
Last week, the British Library announced that the rise of the digital age had, paradoxically, helped boost numbers visiting the British Library by 10 per cent. Meanwhile, James Daunt, the chief executive of Waterstones, Britain’s leading bookselling chain, revealed that sales of traditional books were rising strongly again, while demand for ebook readers had, “to all intents and purposes disappeared”.
This was something of a volte-face for Mr Daunt, who, just three years ago, declared: “Our customers want to read digitally,” while announcing a juicy deal with Amazon to sell the online giant’s Kindle ebook readers. Reports from the book trade speak of a spectacular Christmas with record-breaking sales and packed shops, but ebooks appear to have missed the party.
Meanwhile, Waterstones’ rival, Foyles, says its sales were up by 8.1 per cent on last Christmas, despite fewer promotions, and with traditional books accounting for most of the advance. “The physical book is having a resurgence,” says Foyles boss, Sam Husain. “People still like to shop online, but there’s nothing like being in the bookshop.”
It wasn’t meant to be this way. When ebooks took off in the mid-Noughties, many foresaw the death of the printed variety that has dominated the market for 600 years, and great was the wailing and gnashing of teeth among traditionalists. A slim, six-ounce Kindle could store hundreds of books, and the device was packed with nifty features for tech-addicted customers. The book was clearly headed the same way as the quill. Or the typewriter. Or, for that matter, the vinyl record.
Happily, the ebook pioneers forgot something important. There are some things that technology can’t replace, and readers began to realise that a proper book possessed something akin to a soul. Not just older readers, either. My 16-year-old son begged for a Kindle a few years ago. When I asked him last week if he still used it, he looked up from the hand-bound, folio edition of The Count of Monte Cristo he had got for Christmas, and blinked. “Oh, that, not really.”
Behind the world’s unstoppable technological advance, it seems, is the awkward human refusal to be rushed. Or conned into believing that things that will actually make their lives more complicated will make them easier. Or sold expensive solutions to problems that don’t exist. And from these stirrings of resistance is arising the phenomenon of low-tech.
To the rallying cry, “Old is Gold”, millions are re-embracing technologies that seemed doomed to a cobwebby obsolescence. Clam-shell and “flip” phones are the new height of chic, with the likes of Anna Wintour, editor of US Vogue, singer Rihanna and actress Scarlett Johansson all flaunting the venerable devices. Good-quality examples of these old phones can fetch over £800 – far more than the latest Apple iPhone 6 – and so big is the demand that Samsung, the Korean manufacturer, is bringing out a new version.
The appeal is only partly faddishness. For the old phones actually do what phones used to do, which is to make and receive phone calls, without depositing your whole life in cyberspace where it can be stolen and used to embarrass you before the entire world. According to the New York Times, one of the main attractions of the retro-phone for celebrities is that it helps keep their secrets safe. And, as rocker Iggy Pop says, “You can drop it and it doesn’t break.”
The same sound reasoning may explain the extraordinary comeback of the Polaroid “instant photo” camera, once the instrument of choice for aficionados of amateur erotic snaps. Last year’s Hollywood nude photo scandal in which hackers accessed Apple’s iCloud storage system and put naked pictures of more than 100 actresses, including Jennifer Lawrence and Kirsten Dunst, on the internet, had a chilling effect in celebrity circles.
It was excellent news for Polaroid, though. Near bankrupt in the early 2000s, the US corporation stopped selling its famous self-developing film in 2007. The rights were bought by a small Dutch-based company, the Impossible Project, which is now struggling to meet demand.
“Last year our film sales were up 60 per cent,” says Creed O’Hanlon, the company’s executive chairman. “We probably sold 1 million packs of film and we sold 3,000 cameras on Black Friday alone.”
The firm is currently scouring the globe for old Polaroids it can refurbish and sell. While celebrities have helped create a buzz, admits Mr Hanlon, the big buyers are teenagers. “Today, the thing teenagers love is taking a picture, hearing a click and a whirr,” he says, “then seeing an image slowly appear in the palm of their hand. People love the tangibility. You can write on it, you can give it to somebody. It feels one-off and more special than just transferring you a file.”
Vinyl-record sales are booming, too. Last year they hit an estimated 1.2 million – the highest for 20 years, and a five-fold increase since 2008. Threatened by seemingly superior technologies, the old discs seemed headed for extinction, but – as with books – it is the “soul” of vinyl that has been its salvation.
In particular, fans like the covers – once an art genre in their own right and now being rediscovered by a new generation. “They are one of the key reasons people are buying vinyl again,” says Gennaro Castaldo of the British Phonographic Industry. “They help to transform a record into an artefact fans like to own and collect.”
Even typewriters are bouncing back. Spooked by the WikiLeaks and Edward Snowden affairs, intelligence agencies and political groups are reportedly returning to Cold War technology to keep their secrets safe. The glamour is back, too. Movie star Tom Hanks recently published a “love letter” to the typewriter, declaring: “The tactile pleasure of typing is incomparable… there is a sheer physical pleasure to typing.”
Dr Mike Evans, a theoretical physicist at Leeds University, believes that the appeal of high-technology is being undone by its constant quest for what he calls “sterile perfection”.
People are naturally curious, he argues, and they like to have some sense of how things work. With, say, a record player it’s obvious; with a shiny plastic stick, it isn’t.
“Devices shield us from reality, only because it is fashionable to do so. For example, when you switch on an old radio – even one with automatic tuning – you hear a few seconds of white or coloured noise as the tuner seeks the right frequency. It’s a nice sound, evocative of the electromagnetic physics of the carrier wave. New models don’t do that until the tuning is completed.
“Modern gadgets are designed not to betray the imperfect physical nature of their workings,” Dr Evans continues. “That is a shame, because imperfections are important in helping us to understand the world.”
Today I was contacted by my good friend and one of the leading researchers into CERN concerning something very disturbing indeed. The commonly accepted maximum power expected to be generated at CERN, and this comes from their own Scientists, is 13 TeV, however, worryingly, we are learning that the true power will be over 1,000 TeV!
Yes, you read that right… 1,000 TeV. Below, I have made a video report to help explain this, and then included the work of Mr Patch in article form. Tony Patch will be on Freaky Friday tonight over on TRUTH FREQUENCY RADIO, 23rd Oct 2015 @ 2am UK time, 9pm EST & 6pm PST to explain these truely frightening developments.
LHC Updates by Anthony Patch
The Maximum Power Level for the LHC will be:
Nov. 20 – Dec. 13 : 1.15 PeV – THIS FAR EXCEEDS THE LEVEL OF 13TeV seen thus far!
Where does this 1.15 PeV come from and what is PEV?
Collisions of Ions Of Lead (Pb) @ 1,148 TeV (1.15 PeV)
The highest energy to day is 13 TeV with Protons.
NOTE – Tera (TeV) 10 followed by 12 zeroes – 10,000,000,000,000
Peta (PeV) 10 followed by 15 zeroes – 10,000,000,000,000
This is the CENTER of MASS ENERGY of Lead Particles – that is where the 1.14 PeV is coming from
The LHC will power up from 13 TeV – 1,148 TeV
13,000,000,000,000 Electron Volts = the 13 TeV
1,148,000,000,000,000 Electron Volts = the 1,148 TeV = 1.15 PeV
TERA – Trillion
Peta – Quadrillion
SO WHAT DOES THIS MEAN?
The actual maximum poer level the LHC is capagle of has been hidden from the public
All of the publicity has been surrounding their having achieved 13 TeV
No mention of 1.15 PeV has ever been made
Protons have been colliding this year.
Now they are swapping them out for Ions Of Lead (Pb) from NOV 20 through DEC 13
STARGATE AT CERN
The stated goals of CERN are to….
Discover new dimensions… to open one or more
Porals to other dimenstion… to make contact
Many Physicists have expressed their concern that this search for other dimensions could have disastrous consequences for us all. Concern for the production of Vacuum Bubbles enveloping not only our Earth, but perhaps even the universe.
Also, the production of Strangelets, the most powerful explosive substance in the known universe.
The fact that the LHC will produce such a massive increase in power of 1.15 PeV, rather than the purported maximum of 14+ TeV, should raise concern aswell.
1,145 Trillion vs 14 Trillion is a big jump!
PROTONS HAVE A COLLISION ENERGY = 14TeV LEAD ION COLLISION ENERGY = 1.15PeV
The beam dynamics and the performance limits with Lead ions are quite different from those of Protons. This is due to the copious nuclear electomagnetic interaction in peripheral collisions of Lead Ions.
The physics of Lead ion beams is qualitatively and quantitatively different from that of Protons.
The Interaction Point #2 for the collisions of Lead ions is within the ALICE detector. The CMS and ATLAS detectors will play a later role in the experiments.
Lead ions will collide head-on, whereas Protons did so at an angle. This contributes to the marked increase in the Centre-of-mass-Energy level.
To put it simply, that is why we see the jump from TeV to PeV.
This increase in power, having been withheld from the public at large, calls into question…. what will be the result? Why hide it?
Repeatedly, the spokespeople for CERN admittedly have no real idea what to expect once the LHC achieves maximum power levels.
Again, just to emphasise the point here….
WE ARE TALING ABOUT THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN…
TRILLIONS ON ELECTRON VOLTS (ONE MILLION MILLION) VS QUADRILLIONS (ONE THOUSAND MILLION MILLION)
Circulation within the 27km long Main Ring of the LHC, not loosely configured subatomic particles… but now what essentially are two SOLID BEAMS OF LEAD, each rotating in opposite directions at 99.9999999991% the speed of light….
And, unlike what previously occured with Protons crossing each other’s paths at an angle, Heavy Lead Ions, the “solid beams”, will collide head-on….
Thus combing all of their Kinetic Energies at one point