SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
Many Interacting Worlds theory: Scientists propose existence and interaction of parallel worlds Tags: scientists parallel worlds quantum physics theories

Griffith scientists propose existence and interaction of parallel worldsGriffith University academics are challenging the foundations of quantum science with a radical new theory based on the existence of, and interactions between, parallel universes.
 

In a paper published in the prestigious journal Physical Review X, Professor Howard Wiseman and Dr Michael Hall from Griffith's Centre for Quantum Dynamics, and Dr Dirk-Andre Deckert from the University of California, take interacting parallel worlds out of the realm of science fiction and into that of hard science.

The team proposes that parallel universes really exist, and that they interact. That is, rather than evolving independently, nearby worlds influence one another by a subtle force of repulsion. They show that such an interaction could explain everything that is bizarre about quantum mechanics

Quantum theory is needed to explain how the universe works at the microscopic scale, and is believed to apply to all matter. But it is notoriously difficult to fathom, exhibiting weird phenomena which seem to violate the laws of cause and effect.

Professor Howard Wiseman, Director of Griffith University's Centre 
for Quantum Dynamics. Credit: Griffith University


As the eminent American theoretical physicist Richard Feynman once noted: "I think I can safely say that nobody understands quantum mechanics."

However, the "Many-Interacting Worlds" approach developed at Griffith University provides a new and daring perspective on this baffling field.

"The idea of parallel universes in quantum mechanics has been around since 1957," says Professor Wiseman.

"In the well-known "Many-Worlds Interpretation", each universe branches into a bunch of new universes every time a quantum measurement is made. All possibilities are therefore realised – in some universes the dinosaur-killing asteroid missed Earth. In others, Australia was colonised by the Portuguese.

"But critics question the reality of these other universes, since they do not influence our universe at all. On this score, our "Many Interacting Worlds" approach is completely different, as its name implies."

Professor Wiseman and his colleagues propose that:

  • The universe we experience is just one of a gigantic number of worlds. Some are almost identical to ours while most are very different;
  • All of these worlds are equally real, exist continuously through time, and possess precisely defined properties;
  • All quantum phenomena arise from a universal force of repulsion between 'nearby' (i.e. similar) worlds which tends to make them more dissimilar.

Dr Hall says the "Many-Interacting Worlds" theory may even create the extraordinary possibility of testing for the existence of other worlds.

"The beauty of our approach is that if there is just one world our theory reduces to Newtonian mechanics, while if there is a gigantic number of worlds it reproduces quantum mechanics," he says.

"In between it predicts something new that is neither Newton's theory nor quantum theory.

"We also believe that, in providing a new mental picture of quantum effects, it will be useful in planning experiments to test and exploit quantum phenomena."

The ability to approximate quantum evolution using a finite number of worlds could have significant ramifications in molecular dynamics, which is important for understanding chemical reactions and the action of drugs.

Professor Bill Poirier, Distinguished Professor of Chemistry at Texas Tech University, has observed: "These are great ideas, not only conceptually, but also with regard to the new numerical breakthroughs they are almost certain to engender."


SOURCE
 

World on a string: Breakthrough fiberoptic cable 2,500X faster than fastest internet Tags: Information Technology Internet SciTech

World on a string: Breakthrough fiberoptic cable 2,500X faster than fastest internet

[ Will we have that soon and available for anyone? SiNeh~]

RT October 28, 2014 short URL

AFP Photo / Stan Honda
 

Imagine downloading your favorite flick in 31 thousandths of a second. Such insane internet speeds are now a reality, with researchers rolling out a 255 terabits per second fiberoptic network which could transport the entire Internet on a single cable.

The cable, the joint effort of Dutch and US scientists, is 2,550 times faster than the fastest single-fiber links in commercial operation today.

In real terms, it could transfer a 1 GB movie in 0.03 milliseconds or the entire contents of your 1 terabit hard drive in about 31 milliseconds.

At this speed, a single fiber optic cable could theoretically carry the all the data on the internet at peak times.

But how does it work?

Researchers from Eindhoven University of Technology and the University of Central Florida employed a well-known but still cost-prohibitive technology; multi-mode fiber.

Normal fibre optic cables contain thousands of strands of glass or plastic fibre which are slightly thicker than the thread of a needle. These fibers can, in essence, only carry the light for a single laser.

The multi-mode fiber used by the researchers in contrast, has seven distinct cores in a hexagonal shape which are able to carry just as many distinct signals at one time. What’s more, they are squeezed down into the size of the same kind of fiber optic cables used to support the current transatlantic internet cables.

 

image from www.nature.com

image from www.nature.com

 

In layman’s terms, it is something akin to a one way road being stretched out into a seven lane highway. This seven lane highway is then stretched into a multi-tier freeway, much like the so-called LA 'Stack'. Except in this case, it’s like a seven lane, multi-story drag race, with all the power from the individual vehicles being directed into a single source.

Researchers said that this new type of optical fibre is like "allowing 21 times more bandwidth than currently available in communication networks," which is 4-8 Terabits per second standard.

Moreover, the researchers have introduced "two additional orthogonal dimensions for data transportation - as if three cars can drive on top of each other in the same lane."

In their test, the researchers managed to reach speeds of 5.1 terabits for each of the seven carriers. Then, by using wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), which allows a number of optical carrier signals onto a single optical wire, they managed to cram 50 carriers down the seven cores, reaching the massive 255 terabit per second speed.

Measuring less than 200 microns in diameter, the new fiber does not take noticeably more space than conventional fibres already deployed, Dr. Chigo Okonkwo who led the work explained.

“These remarkable results, supported by the European Union Framework 7, MODEGAP, definitely give the possibility to achieve petabits per second transmission, which is the focus of the European Commission in the coming seven-year Horizon 2020 research program,” Okonkwo said.

Research results were recently published in the journal Nature Photonics.

While the technology for multi-mode fiber is in place, the price tag on replacing the millions of miles of existing cables could put the upgrade off for decades.

But with the mind-blistering implications of a world wide web operating at thousands of times its current maximum speed, the cost of holding off on the upgrade for too long may be incalculable.

 

 
Consciousness in Vegetative Patients Thought Beyond Hope Revealed by Active Brain Networks Tags: brain waves EEG brain activity vegetative state technology consciousness

Post image for Consciousness in Vegetative Patients Thought Beyond Hope Revealed by Active Brain Networks

New analysis of brain waves reveals consciousness in patients who appeared to be vegetative.


People with severe brain injuries — resulting from, say, car crashes or heart attacks — can appear to be unaware of the world around them, despite looking as though they are awake.Scientist have used a new test on patients in a persistent vegetative state to show some have active brain networks that could support consciousness.

Patients in this state can look around the room, but do not react to anything said to them and none of their movements seem purposeful.

Nevertheless, the new test suggests some of these patients may have enough brain activity to support consciousness.

The researchers also asked some patients to try and imagine playing tennis, while an fMRI scanner was used to try and locate activity in the motor cortex.

In the image above, the middle person is imagining playing tennis, despite being in a persistent vegetative state.

In comparison, the right hand person is a healthy adult and the left-hand person is also in a persistent vegetative state, but showing little brain activity.

Dr Srivas Chennu, the study’s first author, said:

“Understanding how consciousness arises from the interactions between networks of brain regions is an elusive but fascinating scientific question.

But for patients diagnosed as vegetative and minimally conscious, and their families, this is far more than just an academic question — it takes on a very real significance.”

In the study, the brain activity of 32 patients who had been diagnosed as vegetative and minimally conscious was analysed (Chennu et al., 2014).

These patients were compared to a group of healthy adults.

The study used EEG (measuring the electrical activity of the brain) along with complex mathematics to examine networks of brain activity.

While many patients showed little activity, some had well-preserved networks in their brains that were similar to healthy adults.

Dr Tristan Bekinschtein, another of the study’s authors, said:

“Although there are limitations to how predictive our test would be used in isolation, combined with other tests it could help in the clinical assessment of patients.

If a patient’s ‘awareness’ networks are intact, then we know that they are likely to be aware of what is going on around them.

But unfortunately, they also suggest that vegetative patients with severely impaired networks at rest are unlikely to show any signs of consciousness.”

Image credit: Srivas Chennu

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